Second, the precise limits of maritime requirements that overlap with other states in the territories are clarified. “There is now an international dispute that theoretically limits Turkey`s capacity for action,” Syrigos said. The conflict between the Greek-Turkish maritime borders had probably crystallized long before the agreement between Turkey and Libya and the Greece-Egypt agreement. However, the nature, basic principles and exact geographic scope of these overlapping requirements are now much clearer. This is important to define the geographical scope of UNCLOS`s commitment to “not jeopardize or impede the completion of the final agreement” and restriction obligations under customary international law (see Barrett, Burke et al. in the 2016 BIICL report on state obligations with respect to unrestricted maritime areas). Given the possible contribution to the discovery of energy resources in these maritime areas to the economies and geopolitical positions of these nations, the option of “gunboat diplomacy” seems to remain at the forefront, rather than respecting international law in the Eastern Mediterranean. Efforts by the United States and the EU to compensate for Russia`s access to the Mediterranean and the improvement of China`s relations with Mediterranean countries through the Modern Silk Road Project continue to put pressure on the Cypriot island. The Mediterranean is at the centre of an “undeclared war” as the United States and the EU conduct further exercises with the Gulf States and the Israel-Greece-South Trio to balance Russia, China and Iran. In other words, the rivalry for supremacy in the region turns into a cold war as a conflict between countries.
ISTANBUL/ANKARA (Reuters) – Libya`s internationally recognized government and Turkey have signed an agreement on maritime borders in the Mediterranean that could complicate Ankara`s disputes over energy exploration with other countries. Cyprus and Egypt were the first to conclude in 2003 an agreement to delimit the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) (here). The agreement is based on “a middle line whose position is equal to the next point on the baseline of both parties” (Article 1). Cyprus then concluded two other agreements on the basis of median/equidistances: with Lebanon in 2007 (here not yet in force) and with Israel in 2010 (here). These three agreements are concise and each contain five articles: Article 1 defines the exact position of the middle line; Article 2 deals with the resources of the cross-border seabed; Article 3 governs the process of future delimitation with third countries; Section 4 deals with dispute resolution; and Article 5 examines the ratification and entry into force of the agreement.